Gynaecological Cancers

CARCINOMA CERVIX

Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in women in India. HPV infection, young age of coitus, multiple sexual partners are risk factors for cervical cancer. Earliest symptom of cervical cancer is abnormal vaginal bleeding after coitus, pelvic pain, foul smelling vaginal discharge. Early-stage cervical cancers are treated by surgery (Radical hysterectomy) and advanced stage cervical cancers ae treated by chemoradiation therapy.

This 56-year-old female patient was presented with postmenopausal vaginal bleeding and lower backache.Diagnosed as stage -I squamous cell carcinoma of cervix. She underwent radical hysterectomy and pelvic and para-aortic lymph node dissection.

62-year-old female patient presented with foul smelling per vaginal discharge and lower back pain. Diagnosed as stage-IIA carcinoma of cervix and treated with Radical hysterectomy and adjuvant radiation therapy.

This 56 years old female presented with per vaginal bleeding and lower abdominal pain. Diagnosed as recurrent cervical cancer with urinary bladder infiltration. She underwent Anterior Exenteration surgery with ileal conduit urinary diversion.

This patient 62 years old women, k/c/o recurrent carcinoma cervix with bladder infiltration, post definitive chemoradiation, presented with foul smelling per vaginal discharge and lower abdominal pain. She underwent anterior exenteration and ileal conduit surgery.

CARCINOMA VULVA

Vulvar carcinoma is a rare disease that accounts for about 4% of gynaecological cancers. Most commonly occurs in old age and most common presentation is vulvar mass and chronic vulvar pruritis. Vulvar cancers can be cured with radical surgery.

This ,79 years old female patient presented with left vulvar growth and pruritis. She underwent left radical vulvectomy and inguinal node dissection.

OVARIAN CANCER:

Ovarian cancers are one of the most common gynecological cancersworldwide. Recurrence rate is quite high in ovarian cancers, so optimal cytoreductive surgery plays important role in ovarian cancer along with chemotherapy for systemic control of tumor.

Few cases of large ovarian tumors which were treated with cytoreductive surgery and chemotherapy. Patients have quality of life after treatment.

Germ cell tumors of ovary are much less common than epithelial ovarian neoplasm and usually occurs in young females and diagnosed in early stage. This 8 years old girl presented with large ovarian solid cystic mass. She underwent fertility preserving primary cytoreductive surgery and final histopathology was high grade embryonal carcinoma with foci of dysgerminoma. She received adjuvant chemotherapy.

UTERINE CANCERS

Uterine cancers are common cancer in obese females. Morbid obesity and unopposed estrogen exposure are main risk factor. Most common presentation for uterine cancer is post-menopausal bleeding. Uterine cancers are treated with surgery and radiation therapy and complete cure is possible if diagnosed in early stage.

Uterine carcinosarcoma (mixed mullerian tumour) are aggressive tumours with poor prognosis. This patient,67 years old female underwent radical hysterectomy and pelvic and retroperitoneal lymph node dissection. Final histopathology was carcinosarcoma. She received adjuvant chemoradiation.

Uterine sarcomas are aggressive, uncommon uterine cancer and can be treated with radical surgery.